1. AI vs. Human music
Human Cognitive Study on Artificial Intelligence for Music
Hyunjae Kim, Eunji Oh, Jieun Park, Seokbeom Park, Soojin Kang, Kyung Myun Lee
Recently, automatic composition models based on artificial intelligence (AI) techniques have made it possible to automatically generate musical melodies in the style of various artists. The significance of human assessment of musical similarity between original and AI-generated music in the context of copyright issues has been widely acknowledged. Nevertheless, despite the significance of perceptual similarity, this aspect has yet to be thoroughly examined. In this study, we explore the intersection of human cognition and artificial intelligence in music.
(In submission) Kim, H. J., Oh, E. J, Park, J. E., Chung, Y. J., Nam, J. H. & Lee, K. M. (2023). A comparison of melody interpolation performed by human and artificial intelligence based on human similarity judgments, The 17th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition (ICMPC).
Kim, H. J., Oh, E. J, Chung, Y. J., Nam, J. H. & Lee, K. M. (2023). A study of melody similarity of AI-composition with cognitive behavioral experiment, Korean Society for Music Perception and Cognition (KSMPC).
KAIST Post-AI Research
2. Brain Responses to Music
Enhanced subcortical responses of musicians to sounds presented on metrically strong beats
Soojin Kang, Kyung Myun Lee
The temporal structure of sound such as in music and speech increases the efficiency of auditory processing by providing listeners with a predictable context. Musical meter is a good example of a sound structure that is temporally organized in a hierarchical manner, with recent studies showing that meter optimizes neural processing, particularly for sounds located at a higher metrical position or strong beat. Whereas enhanced cortical auditory processing at times of high metric strength has been studied, there is to date no direct evidence showing metrical modulation of subcortical processing. In this work, we examined the effect of meter on the subcortical encoding of sounds by measuring human auditory frequency-following responses to speech presented at four different metrical positions. Results show that neural encoding of the fundamental frequency of the vowel was enhanced at the strong beat, and also that the neural consistency of the vowel was the highest at the strong beat. When comparing musicians to non-musicians, musicians were found, at the strong beat, to selectively enhance the behaviorally relevant component of the speech sound, namely the formant frequency of the transient part. Our findings indicate that the meter of sound influences subcortical processing, and this metrical modulation differs depending on musical expertise.
Moon, I. J., Kang, S., Boichenko, N., Hong, S. H., & Lee, K. M. (2020). Meter enhances the subcortical processing of speech sounds at a strong beat. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 1-8.
Lee, K. M. (August 2019). Enhanced subcortical responses of musicians to sounds presented on metrically strong beats, Society for Music Perception and Cognition, New York, USA.
Lee, K. M. & Kang, S. (August 2018). Effects of meter on brainstem and cortical encoding of sound, 15th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition (ICMPC), Graz, Austria.
Lee, K. M. & Kang, S. (August 2017). Metrical modulation of brain responses to sounds: neurophysiological findings, Asia-Pacific Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music, Kyoto, Japan.
National Research Foundation of Korea
3. Groove in Music
Seokbeom Park, Kyung Myun Lee
In music psychology, ‘groove’ is defined as the pleasurable desire to move. Studies of groove showed that musical factors such as syncopation, microtiming deviations (MTD), beat salience, event density, and harmony influence groove. However, the roles of MTD and harmony in groove experience remain unclear. Therefore, we have investigated the effect of harmonic structure and interaction between microtiming patterns in two instruments on the groove experience. Further research will focus on the brain processes underlying groove experience and rhythm perception, mainly using EEG techniques.
(Under review) Park, S. B., Davis, C., & Lee, K. M. The effect of harmonic structure and interaction between microtiming patterns in two instruments on the groove experience.
Park, S. B., & Lee, K. M. (2023). Definition of Groove: A Survey Study, Korean Society for Music Perception and Cognition (KSMPC).
Park, S. B., & Lee, K. M. (2021). Effects of microtiming deviations between two instruments on the groove experience, The 16th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition (ICMPC).
Park, S. B., & Lee, K. M. (2020). A Review of Cognitive Studies of Groove, Music Theory Forum, 27(2), 161-180.
4. Online Music Education
The Effect of Online Music Education on Linguistic Ability
Eunji Oh, Kyung Myun Lee
Music and language have something in common in that they share neural processing pathways and are formed in a hierarchical structure. Based on these, many studies have shown that there is a transfer effect in both areas, namely that music education can not only affect musical ability but also language ability. In particular, music interventions focusing on rhythm can enhance reading abilities of preschool children. Would it also be effective even if music education is conducted online? The COVID-19 pandemic has elicited great interest in the outcomes of online education. In this study, we examined the effect of online music class on reading skills by comparing the test score before and after the program.
(In submission) Oh, E. J., Kim, Y. J., & Lee, K. M. (2023). Effect of online music class on linguistic, cognitive, and musical abilities in Korean preschool children: A pilot study, The 17th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition (ICMPC).
Oh, E. J., Kim, Y. J., & Lee, K. M. (2023). The effect of online music program on the reading skills of children, Korean Society for Music Perception and Cognition (KSMPC).
Oh, E. J., & Lee, K. M. (2020). Possibility of music training to promote Korean language development. Journal of Music and Theory, 35, 79-107. https://doi.org/10.36364/jmt.35.3
Oh, E. J., & Lee, K. M. (2020). Review of rhythm programs for the enhancement of literacy skills, Korean Society for Music Perception and Cognition (KSMPC).
National Research Foundation of Korea
5. Background Music for Business
Fig.1 Interaction plot for musical fit
Music Genres and Characteristics Suitable for the Image of Business Type
Eunji Oh, Jieun Park, Seokbeom Park, Hyunjae Kim, Soojin Kang, Kyung Myun Lee
‘Musical fit’ is defined as “the customers’ subjective perceptions of the music’s relevance or appropriateness to the central ad message (Macinnis&Park, 1991). And the musical fit has been found to have a positive effect on consumers’ perceptions and evaluations, such as advertising, product and brand evaluation, and purchase intention. However, most of these studies have been conducted in Western culture. Thus, we investigated the musical fit between music genres (Classic, Jazz, K-pop, Pop) and characteristics (Arousal, Valence, Familiarity, Preference) suitable for business types familiar with Korean (Chicken Franchise, Screen Golf, Hair Shop).
Oh, E. J., Park, J. E., Park, S. B., Kim, H. J., Kang, S. J., & Lee, K. M. (2022). Music genres and characteristics suitable for the image of business type, The Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering (KSNVE).
6. Video Gaming and Cognitive Performances in 50s and older
Game Design Guide for Adults in Their 50s and Older
Seokbeom Park, Kyung Myun Lee
Most games in the market are focused on younger players. Unlike their younger counterparts, players in their 50s and older haven’t been exposed to computers and arcades since birth, yet may be curious about games and want to play them. What kind of games would they enjoy? What are the greatest inconveniences for them when playing games? This guide presents important considerations when developing games for players in their 50s and older. During the project, Music and Brain Lab investigated the impacts of an individual’s various cognitive abilities on playing games and games on cognitive abilities using cognitive science and EEG methods.
Park, S. B., Davis, C., & Lee, K. M. (2020). A Review of Cognitive Studies of Groove, Music Theory Forum.
< Game Design Guide for Adults in Their 50s and Older >
KAIST Public Relation Office. (2022, June 3). Publication of design guide for game developers to refer to for adult game users. KAIST Research News.
Nts Nuli. (2022, September 26). Anyone can play games. A game design guide that connects generations. NULI.
Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism